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Plains Indian Warriors Societies

Dog Society

Dog Society

Dog society was found in most of the Plains, Prairies (Arapaho-Gros Ventre, Arikara, Blackfoot, Cheyenne, Crow, Dakota, Hidatsa, Iowa, Lakota, Mandan, Omaha, Plains Cree, Ponka, Sarsi) and even Great Basin tribes (Ute). All of them share common origin, name and distinctive paraphernalia: globular feather bonnet made of black (raven, crow, magpie) or yellow (eagle owl) feathers, no-retreat sashes, connected with bravery obligations, dewclaws (hoofs) rattles, bone whistles and other common traits. Of all the typical Dog societies of the Plains tribes, the Cheyennes Dog soldiers (Hotamétaneo'o) were most distinguished for warlike qualities. About 1830 all the men of a certain Cheyenne band and (Masikota) joined the Dog Soldiers in a body. Since that time the society has comprised about half the men in the tribe, and has been the most distinct, important, and aggressive of all the warrior societies of the Cheyenne. Lakota had it's own version of the Dog society, which was known under a different name — Miwatani (also known as Owl Feather Headdress society and the Iyuptala). Moreover, as far as I can see, actually there were 2 or even 3 Dog societies (Miwatani and 2 branches of Cante Tinza society: Iku Sapa and Hanhe'pi Cante Tinza) with similar paraphernalia (globular bonnets and no-retreat sashes) and functions.
Thunder Warriors

Thunder Warriors

Thunder Warriors: (i) Lakota, Dakota and Cheyenne warriors who obtained war medicine, protection and help from the supernatural Thunder being (Thunderbird or the Winged One) without becoming Heyoka-Hohnuhka; (ii) the Heyoka-Hohnuhka or Contrary warriors who were individuals committed to doing the opposite of what others conventionally do, not merely in ceremony or when on the warpath, but on a permanent and daily basis. The Lakota, Dakota and Cheyenne Heyoka-Hohnuhka was a dream cult closely associated with the supernatural Thunder Beings (Thunderbirds, Thunder spirits or Thunder-bow).